Everything posted by DrMahad
DrMahad added Ciwaanka Su'aasha in EconomicCauses and Macroeconomic Effects Of The Souring Public Debt In Most Sub Saharan African Economies1.0 Introduction
The public debt has caused stagnant economies in most Sub Sahara Africa countries and remained under developed economies over decades and this is the major problem facing most Sub Sahara African countries and that is how to handle with the external debts which are also a fundamental cause of the fiscal crisis in the Sub -Sahara countries. The Africa’s inability to control the economy and sustain development because of the fiscal stress and low per capita growth in Sub Sahara countries generated by the recession and high external debt which is finally translated into the backwardness of Sub Sahara African (SSA) countries since the external debt was relatively high than the domestic debt and the domestic debt is indigenous circulating the money within the country while the external debt is exogenous but the situation of overall debt has deteriorated since the late 1990's.
According to African Forum and Network on Debt and Development report (AFRODAD, 2011) highlighted that domestic debt levels have risen significantly over the recent years and worryingly, this is mostly in the very same countries that experienced problems with external debt and this deterioration has an adverse implications for both stabilization and macroeconomic management policies. The increased high rate of external debt in Sub-Sahara African countries (SSA) resulted in a high interest burden, because of the delayed debt service earns additional interest payments that increases the burden of the original debt which led Africa’s inability to allocate resources or expenditures for critical poverty alleviating and remained one of the poorest countries in the world. (Milton, 1999) presented a good and empirical evidence for the backwardness of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries since per capita income (measured by gross national product per person) declined at an average annual rate of 2.2%). Per capita private consumption fell by 14.8%; export volume was stagnant while import volume plummeted at an average annual rate of 4.3%; and the terms of trade fell by 9.1% however, the average annual growth rate of real GDP per capita between 1981 and 1990 was -0.9%.
The central question remains unanswered over decades is how Sub-Sahara Africa countries bridge this problem and where the sources of this vicious circle come from?
According to African economic outlook (2012), described that Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) had the lowest aggregate level of human development in 2011, albeit posting the second fastest annual increase over the period 2000-11. Improved policies will not suffice to sustain high rates of growth of human development; therefore, this paper focuses the macroeconomic effects of public debt on Sub-Sahara Countries, so after introduced the nature of the public debt in the introduction, the paper discussed in section 2 causes and sources of public debt while the paper will present macroeconomic effects of public debt in section 3, remedial steps will be highlighted in section 4 and section 5 concluding remarks will be given.
2. Causes and Sources of Public Debt in SSA
High public debt is an issue become prominent in Sub- Sahara African countries which hinders the level of living standard of 600 million people inhabiting it, there are several causes contributing to the increase of public debt, thus to be fully understood the debt crisis of sub-Saharan African countries, I highlight some of them, therefore in order to tackle the public debt and solve the problems created by increased public debt, the causes of public debt must be first understood.
The following are the causes:
1. Increased government spending
2. Increased Budget Deficits
3. Over borrowing by the developing countries
Any country that fails to manage and stabilize its debt at the optimum level by minimizing the causes and sources of public debt such as if government expenditure exceeds its revenue the government incurs a deficit then if deficits accumulates it becomes debt then that country will experience debt overhang problems. These come in the forms of disincentive effect, crowding out effect and import compression effect.
As mentioned by Milton ( 1999) the external debt of sub-Saharan African countries witnessed a rapid build-up during the period immediately following the global debt crisis with external debt obligations skyrocketing from US$84 billion in 1980 to US$223.3 billion in 1995. (See Table1 for details). Thus, SSA’s external debt stock increased by 265.8% in 15 years, i.e., it grew at an average rate of 6.7% per annum.
Table 1: Total external debt, 1970&95 (US$ million)
Year Total external debt growth in external debt %
1970 8,296 -
1971 9,772 17.79
1972 11,235 14.97
1973 15,168 35.01
1974 19,340 27.51
1975 22,721 17.48
1976 26,996 18.82
1977 33,705 24.85
1978 43,655 29.52
1979 55,485 27.10
1980 84,049 51.48
1981 75,668 -9.97
1982 81,946 8.30
1983 88,233 7.67
1984 83,866 0.72
1985 96,396 8.47
1986 127,145 31.90
1987 162,629 27.91
1988 164,981 1.45
1989 171,236 3.79
1990 190,260 11.11
1991 194,779 2.38
1992 192,781 -1.03
1993 197,886 2.65
1994 212.416 7.34
1995 223,298 5.12
Source: AERC Research Paper 90 African Economic Research Consortium, Nairobi
March 1999 and World Bank report (1996).
3. Macroeconomic Effects of Public Debt
(lyoha, 1999) described that macroeconomic effects of public debt are pervasive in Sub-Sahara African countries (SSA) because of that debt they suffer low income, low savings and low investment, the current high levels of debt and debt servicing in Sub- Sahara countries would militate against rapid economic growth and development, which led to the low standard of living in these countries, indeed, some analysts and international policy makers appear to have reached a consensus to the effect that a satisfactory recovery of investment and output growth in indebted SSA countries will remain difficult, perhaps unattainable, as long as they are saddled with a burden of debt servicing that requires a sizeable net transfer of resources abroad. Stated simply, there is no way in which many SSA countries can service their debt and still have adequate resources left for development finance. Thus, many now believe that a necessary condition for economic growth and development in SSA is debt relief. This must go beyond debt rescheduling and even beyond the “Naples terms” (the latest initiative by executive countries). It could be a policy package that combines debt reduction (debt or debt service write-down) with a significant amount of debt forgiveness (write-off of official debt and perhaps write-down of commercial debt) for the low-income SSA countries. This seems to me that the effect of skyrocketing debt is the main hindrance for economic growth and development in sub-Sahara African countries, as mentioned by lyoha (1999) the investment and GDP were very low and also reached the level that can be called the Gross domestic investment collapsed in sub-Saharan Africa in the 198Os, especially starting from 1983. According to World Bank data, from a level of US$44 billion in 1981, gross domestic investment rapidly fell to a low of US$23 billion in 1984. From that level, it rose slowly, reaching US$37.6 in 1991. According to the World Bank (1994b), the average annual growth rate of gross domestic investment was 5.1% between 1970 and 1980, but was -3% between 1980 and 1992. As may be expected, the investment/ GDP ratio also declined sharply. In analyzing the movement of the investment/GDP ratio, the World Bank (1992b) shows that while the annual average ratio was 21.5% in19751979, it collapsed to 15.6% in 1980-1985. Indeed, if the period 1983-1986 is considered, it is found that the average investment/GDP ratio was only 13%. In fact, from a ratio 26% of GDP in 1977, the investment ratio fell to a catastrophic 12.8% in 1984. No doubt, a fall in gross domestic saving partly accounts for this. World Bank (1992b) statistics show that the ratio of gross domestic saving to GDP, which averaged 18.9% in1975-1979, had fallen to 13.4% in198&1985.
All these imperial macro econometrics figures which have being done by Iyoha shows us that the macroeconomic affects of debt for these countries are very high. To support his findings this burden of debt has led backwardness to the Sub-Sahara countries (SSA) and also depresses investment and growth through both disincentive effect and crowding out effect because the high debt servicing has a negative effect on the growth process.
4. Remedial Polices of the problem
1. External Debt Sustainability
(Osinubi, 2006), suggested that the first step to remedy the problem of external debt is to maintain the sustainability of external debt he argued that if it can meet its current and future external debt service obligations in full, without resource to debt scheduling or the accumulation of arrears and without compromising growth so once the current burden and future obligations is reduced to sustainable levels it is possible to eliminate the disincentive effect of a heavy debt burden on investment and new capital inflows, thereby improving growth prospects.
2. Optimal Level of Borrowin
(Osinubi, 2006), also suggested that If properly used what is borrowed from external resources may greatly benefit a developing country and contribute to its growth – they add to the total resources available to an economy over a given period. However, such borrowing is desirable when it is used to finance investment that is expected to yield an adequate rate of return or to smoothen consumption in the face of an uneven aggregate supply, since it can provide a level of economic welfare that could not otherwise be obtained. It is important to stress that if debt problems are to be avoided, the investments financed by foreign borrowing must have a real economic rate of return that is at least equal to the real rate of interest. And since the borrowing is presumably in foreign currency, the required equal rate of return must also be expressed in foreign currency (Obadan, 1999). Also suggested that the same idea but if the conditions for optimal borrowing are violated then external debt becomes a burden and the country can no longer sustain the existing level of debt stock. The concept of external debt sustainability has occupied a center-stage in recent analyses of the debt problem of developing nations.
In summary, this paper is carried out to explain the causes of macroeconomic effects of public debt in Sub-Sahara African countries and in which ways they can remedy the burden of this debt, therefore, this paper and many other literatures reviewed, showed that it cannot be ignored the macroeconomic problems of public debt burden since it hinders the development and overall growth of the sectors of the economy, Sub-Sahara African countries should put in place to know the sources of these problems and continue improving the macroeconomic stability by minimizing the current burden and future obligations of debt once it is reduced to a sustainable levels it is possible to eliminate the disincentive effect of a heavy debt burden on investment and new capital inflows, thereby improving growth prospects.
Budget deficits, external debt and economic growth in nigeria. Applied Econometrics and International Development , 6(3) 175-176.
lyoha, M. (1999). External debt and economic growth in Sub-Sahara African countries:An econometric study. Retreived May 20, 2014, from OUM online database.
lyoha, M. (1999). External debt and economic and economic growth in Sub-Sahara African countries:An econometric study. Retreived May 20, 2014, from OUM online database.
lyoha, M. (1999). External debt and economic and economic growth in Sub-Sahara African countries:An econometric study. Retreived May 20, 2014, from OUM online database.
- 0 replies
- 1,528 views
DrMahad added Ciwaanka Su'aasha in EconomicDo remittances offset Africa's brain drain?DO REMITTANCES OFFSET AFRICA'S BRAIN DRAIN?
A remittance is a transfer of money by a foreign worker to an individual in his or her home country. Money sent home by migrants competes with international aid as some of the largest financial inflows to developing countries. Remittances are playing an increasingly large role in the economies of many countries, contributing to economic growth and to the livelihoods of less prosperous people (though generally not the poorest of the poor) (Ratha, 2003). As remittance receivers often have a higher propensity to own a bank account, remittances promote access to financial services for the sender and recipient, an essential aspect of leveraging remittances to promote economic development. According to Ratha (2003), remittances have social significance that extends well beyond the mere financial dimensions in African countries. The recent increase in formal remittance flows can be explained by the increase in the number and income of migrants, the greater number of remittance providers, wider networks in the global financial services industry, and government policies that improve financial market access, all of which have reduced remittance costs and promoted the use of official remittance channels (Yang & Martinez, 2006). Whatever the reasons behind this surge, the growing importance of remittances as a source of foreign exchange and their contribution to economic development have attracted increasing attention from policy-makers and academics alike.
Brain drain refers to the departure or emigration of individuals with technical skills or knowledge from organizations, industries and geographical regions. It is common in developing nations, particularly in many former African colonies, the island nations of the Caribbean and in centralized economies such as the former East Germany and the Soviet Union (Skeldon, 2008). Remittances are transfers of money, goods and diverse traits by migrants or migrant groups back to their countries of origin or citizenship. Although the notion of remittances conjures only monetary aspect, remittances embrace monetary and non-monetary flows, including social remittances. Yang and Martinez (2006), defines diaspora’s social remittances as ideas, practices, mind-sets, world views, values and attitudes, norms of behavior and social capital (knowledge, experience and expertise) that the diasporas mediate and either consciously or unconsciously transfer from host to home communities.
The African brain drain is not large enough to have much effect on Africa’s skill gap relative to the rest of the world. Since other regions had a larger brain drain, the skill gap between Africa and the rest would actually be larger in a counterfactual world of no brain drain with the same amount of skill creation. According to one of our calculations, the present value of remittances more than covers the cost of educating a brain drainer in the source country (Rodriguez & Horton, 1994). Brain drain has a positive effect on skill accumulation that appears to offset one for one the loss of skills to the brain drain. Hence it is not surprising that we fail to identify any negative growth effect of the brain drain in Africa. African diaspora interviewed stated that they obtained social remittances from different sources: through professional expertise in work places in the host countries; through values, norms and work ethics; through their socialization and acculturation in host countries; and by constructing vast transnational networks across countries and continents, linking the process of globalization to ‘globalization’ in their countries of origin (Oucho, 2008).
According to Mutume (2005), sub-Saharan Africa, western Africa receive nearly double the remittances to the entire block, with Nigeria, Ghana and Senegal, in descending order, dominating the pack. Eastern Africa is topped by Kenya, followed by Somalia, Uganda and Ethiopia. Apart from Kenya, the rest are countries that have had political problems which left conflict in their wake, the last two attracting remittances as an important resource for national construction. Central African countries of Angola and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) lead the packing receiving remittances. Finally, in Southern Africa, South Africa is by far the main recipient, with Lesotho second – a well-known remittance- and deferred payment dependent economy. Remittances alone are unlikely to lift people out of poverty; rather it is their interplay with other economic, social and cultural factors which determine the scale and type of impact remittances can have on poverty reduction. While remittances to Africa amounted to US$5.9 billion in 1990, it reached US$ 14billion by 2003, which was a mere 15 per cent of all remittance flows to the developing world. The leading recipient countries have been Algeria, Morocco and Egypt in Northern Africa. In sub-Saharan Africa, Nigeria, with remittances exceedingUS$1.3 million is by far the largest recipient, accounting for 30-60 per cent of the regions receipts (Mutume, 2005). While some other latest estimates suggested that the total amount of Africans working abroad send home amounts some US$45 billion a year.
Negative Impacts of Brain drain in Africa
The growing international transfer of human capital from Africa to the developed countries undermines the human capital development efforts in this region. Evidently most migrants are even more highly educated than the average citizen of their home countries (Belfield 2000). Often the best brain immigrants have enjoyed subsidized education offered by their government from taxpayer money and afterwards leave for greener pastures once their higher education training is completed. The loss of highly skilled professionals has several negative consequences for the economy of Africa. African businesses; and influencing the political climate by infusing democratic political habits, sometimes acting as pressure groups; shortage of skilled people limits the economic growth, While the brain drain is beneficial its flaws are inherently in its title because it usually involves the loss of human capital i.e. skilled labour force who are vital to the development of society and the country as a whole. In the case of skilled man power emigration of the skilled workers as “essentially providing personal benefits for individuals rather than public benefits.
Impact on the health systems in Africa despite the existence of significant global efforts trying to improve health and healthcare systems in the developing world, the money invested is insufficient as health workers from the developing countries leave their home countries and immigrate to the developed world assuming low-status positions in rich countries (Belfield 2000). As a result of many local health workers abandoning their countries, countries in Africa, developing world lack sufficient health care workers, which harm the local health system: health systems in the developing world are receiving financial aid to deal with significant diseases and health issues such as child mortality, AIDS, and Malaria. However the money is ineffective as there is no sufficient manpower in the form of medical and health professionals to do the work required, which further damages the health system rather than strengthening it (Belfield 2000).
Poverty; the impact of migration and remittances, on poverty is complex and difficult to disentangle given the reciprocal relationship between the two. Poverty and vulnerability provide incentives to migrate and on the other reduce the ability to move due to high transfer costs involved (Adams & Page, 2003). Those engaged in international migration are not the poorest of the poor as they must of necessity have some resources to facilitate their movement; first, remittances stimulate formation of small-scale enterprises thereby promoting community development. In different parts of rural Africa, recipient communities are economically vibrant relative to communities that never receive any migrants. Remittances ease credit constraints by providing working capital for the recipients who consequently engage in entrepreneurial activities (Adams & Page, 2003).
The implications for poor sending countries are stark. According to Belfield (2000), African countries lose 20,000 skilled personnel to the developed world every year. All the developed world's efforts to increase aid to these countries may not matter if the local personnel required to implement development programs are absent. Every year there are 20,000 fewer people in Africa to deliver key public services, drive economic growth, and articulate calls for greater democracy and development, however, there is a need to devise measures that recognize that greater mobility, not less mobility, is likely to be the most sustainable and efficient response over the long term. However, this approach presents an immense challenge: how to tap into the immense economic and other benefits migration can deliver for individuals and receiving countries, while simultaneously ensuring that sending countries also benefit.
Salary discrepancies and differences in working conditions between African and developed countries stimulate brain drain. Most African economies have experienced wage freezes, currency devaluation and rampant inflation. These conditions lead skilled people to seek safer countries where remuneration is consistent with qualifications and working experience, and where currencies are less subject to devaluation than in Africa.
Positive Impacts of Brain drain in Africa
The effects of remittance on countries of origin are even more complex. Certainly, the emigration of highly skilled nationals in particular leads to a significant loss of skills available for development. Yet, labour migration and brain circulation lead to a more efficient allocation of manpower within the African continent as well as overseas, and decreases social tensions in the countries of origin. Migrants acquire new skills and experience that are useful for their home countries, and transfer significant parts of their earnings. Migrants stimulate trade between their countries of origin and the host countries (Mutume, 2005).Recent studies explore this nexus between migration and home-country development and inquire about the optimal level of brain drain.
The return of migrants who have acquired new skills and knowledge abroad can be considered a form of knowledge transfer. In as much as the application of knowledge depends on the availability of technology, knowledge transfer is necessarily accompanied by a technology transfer. Even in case the migrants do not return home, however, they can still contribute to the development of their home countries (Beine, Frédéric & Hillel 2002). While staying abroad, they might promote cooperation between universities, technological research centres and business associations of the home and host countries. Internet- and satellite-based information technology greatly enhances this cooperation potential. Remittance can contribute to development in countries of origin. A crucial policy challenge of the future is to involve the skilled members of the African diaspora in innovative forms of cooperation and knowledge transfer to promote the expansion and sustainability of key-sectors for national development. Remittances are playing an increasingly large role in the economies of many countries, contributing to economic growth and to the livelihoods of less prosperous people.
Economic importance of remittances; the balance of payments statistics of the international monetary fund found that one of the major data sources of official remittances, reveals a significant global increase of migrants transfers. In most African countries e.g. Cape Verde, Cameroon, Ghana, Madagascar, Mali, Morocco, Senegal, Togo and Tunisia, the amount of annual official remittances increased by almost 100 per cent. There are economic developments in the countries of destination of migrants. According to Beine, Frédéric and Hillel (2002), it is safe to the developing countries’ economies since they do not currently rely on a steady flow of migrant’s financial transfers. The recent increase in formal remittance flows can be explained by the increase in the number and income of migrants, the greater number of remittance providers, wider networks in the global financial services industry, and government policies that improve financial market access, all of which have reduced remittance costs and promoted the use of official remittance channels. Official remittances do represent considerable financial inflows in many developing countries, and are, therefore, an economic reality that should not be neglected.
Poverty reduction; It targets transfers received in money, food and non-food goods from either internal or international sources. Applying a series of econometric model, the study found that households receiving internal remittances (that is from Ghana)have the lowest mean per capita expenditure and have the highest observed poverty on average of all the household groups; that households receiving international remittances from external sources) have the highest mean per capita expenditure and the lowest observed poverty on average of all the household groups ( Belfield, 2000); that international remittances have a greater impact on poverty reduction; and that both internal and international remittances have a negative impact on income inequality, as measured by the Gini coefficient. The study concludes that poverty reduction depends on the type of remittances being received, which leads us to caution that it is important to ascertain the kind of poverty being targeted (Beine, Frédéric & Hillel 2002).
Remittances can offset Africa's brain drain. The international flow of highly educated workers presents a critical challenge to developing countries particularly in Africa. For African countries to harness remittances in their development process, they should formulate policies in which they involve the diaspora, improve the investment environment and be constantly responsive to changes positively affecting utilization of the two resources. Policy frameworks and programmes targeting the diaspora and remittances could benefit from those already elaborated in Latin America where the two resources have made significant contributions. African countries should incorporate the contribution of their diaspora and remittances in national development planning and programmes. This could be done through African countries’ sustained engagement with the diaspora in multiple facets of development. Africa will continue to experience large-scale population movements, especially outwards. Labour-related migration will continue to provide a way to escape poverty or other forms of hardship at home; however, it also provides a way for educated, skilled and qualified persons to expand their career potential in today’s increasingly globalized world.
Adams, R.H. and Page, J. (2003) “The Impact of Migration and remittances on Poverty”, Poverty Reduction Group, The World Bank. Paper prepared for DFID/World Bank Conference on Migrant Remittances, London, 9-10 October 2003.
Beine, Michel, Frédéric Docquier, and Hillel Rapport.(2002). Brain Drain and LDCs’ Growth: Winners and Losers (Working Paper No. 129). Palo Alto, CA: Center for Research on Economic Development and Policy Reform, Stanford University.
Belfield, Clive R. (2000). Economic Principles for Education: Theory and Evidence. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
Mutume, G. (2005) “Workers’ remittances: a boon o development”, AfricaRenewal19 (3):1-9
Oucho, J. O. (1990) “Migrant Linkages in Africa: Retrospect and Prospect”, in the Union for African Population Studies (UAPS), Commissioned Papers, Conference on the Role of Migration in African Development: Issues and Policies for the 90s”.Dakar: UAPS, pp. 109-141.
Ratha, D. (2003) “Workers’ remittances: An Important and Stable Source of External Development Finance”, in World Bank (2003) Global Development Finance 2003, Chapter 7, Washington, D.C.: World Bank.
Rodriguez, E. and S. Horton (1994) “International Return Migration and Remittances in the Philippines”, in D. O’Connor and L. Farsakh (eds.) Development Strategy, Employment and Migration. Country Experiences, Paris: OECD Development Centre.
Skeldon, Ronald (2008)."Of skilled migration, Brain Drains and Policy". International Migration 47 (4): 3–29. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2435.2008.00484.x.
Yang, D. and C. A. Martinez (2006) “Remittances and Poverty in Migrants’ Home Areas: Evidence from the Philippines”, in Ozden, C. and M. Schiff (eds.) op. cit.
- 0 replies
- 1,147 views
DrMahad added Ciwaanka Su'aasha in EconomicHab dhaqamedka Suuqa Shaqaalaha Africa (The behavior of labor markets in Africa)Horudhac
Qormadan waxa ay sharxi doontaa hab dhaqameedka suuqa shaqaalaha Africa, maadaama suuqa Africa uu haysto shaqaalaha ugu weyn aduunka balse waxaa cad suuqa Africa dhanka wax dhalinta sida (factor markets) in uusan dhameystirnayn ayna yihiin wax tar la’aan, wuxuu xadidayaa kobaca dhaqaalaha Africa. Sidaa darteed,qormadan waxay iftiiminaysaa hab dhaqameedka suuqa shaqaalaha Africa iyo dabeecadaha hadda ka jira dhanka wax dhalinta iyo xiirka uu la leeyahay kobaca dhaqaalaha in u guulaysto sidoo kale qormadan waxa ay soo jeedinaysaa siyaasado wax tar leh oo dhanka dhaqaalaha ah kuwaas oo horu marin kara wax tarka suuqa Africa kana dhigi kara shaqaalaha Africa kuwa la tartami kara shaqaalaha aduunka, (Oyeranti, 1999) wuxuu cabiray sida dowladaha Africa ay u bilaabeen in ay sameeyaan is bedelo xagga dhaqaalaha ah si looga soo kabto guul darooyinkii horay u soo maray ka hor is bedeladaas inta aan la sameynin, tusiyayaasha dhaqaalaha Africa (economic indicators of Africa) waxay geliyeen qaarada Africa dhibaatooyin.
Africa waxa ay ku sinbiriraxday muuqaalaka laga fahmi karo kaas oo laga soo dhaxlay labaatankii sano xornimada Africa ka danbeysay iyo xaaladda hadda taagan ee dhibaatada. xogta tira koob ee Africa (statistics of Africa) waa kuwa aan muujinaynin wanaag, dekadaha Africa waa kuwa ugu faqrisan waana kuwa ugu culus xagga daymaha uguna liita xagga horumarka aduunka dhan,
Wadamada Africa badankood waxay ay ka faqrisan yihiin hadda sida ay ahaayeen 1970s, sicir bararaka ka jira aad ayuu u sareeyaa, shaqa la;aanta aad ay u sara kacday kobaca dhaqaalaha hoos ayuu u dhacayaa marka loo eego 1980s, isku celcelis wax soo saarka gudaha ee qof walba (GDP per capita) dakhliga kobaciisa waa eber (zero) ama waxa uu ka hooseeyaa eber (negative) badanka wadamada Africa. Dhibaatooyinka hortaagan horumarka Africa waxa ay soo bandhigayan taxadiyaad halis ah. Isku dayo badan oola sameyay si loogu sharxo kobaca Africa waxa soo baxaya wixii keeni lahaa kobacas ay hooseeyaan sida kaydsashada oo heerkeeda hooseeya (low saving level) heerka maal gelinta oo hooseeya (low investment level) iyo technoljiyada oo hooseysa iyo siyaasado guracan iyo kuwa kale oo la soo jeediyey. Si kataba ha ahaatee, cadeymihii dhawaan la soo bandhigay ee kobaca dhaqaalaha gudaha (indigenous growth model) cadeymahas waxay tusiyeen wax dhalinta dhaqameed (traditional factors) kuma filna in ay si fiican u sharxaan kobaca Africa. Qormadan waxaan ku qaadaa dhigaynaa kuna samenaynaa faaqidaad baaritaan (exploratory analysis) ee suuqa wax soo saarka iyo dabeecadihiisa, hay’adaha saameeya hab dhaqankiisa, ujeedadaas darted waxaan ku sharxaynaa qaab dhaqanka suuqa shaqaalaha Africa (labor market) iyo suuqa wax soo saarka (factor market) iyo sida suuqaasi uusan u keenin kobac dhaqaale, qormada inteeda kale waxa ay sharxi doontaa saameynta xun ee yeelanayso arintan ka dibna qormada wey soo gabagabaynaysaa wayna soo jeedinaysaa talooyin wax ku ool ah.
Qaab dhaqameedka suuqa Shaqaaalaha Africa
(Oyeranti, 1999) waxa uu sheegay in hab dhaqanka suuqa shaqaalaha Africa iyo qaab muuqaalkiisauu ui u qeybsan yahay kala aaminsanaanta kala duwan ee Africa shaqaalaheeda ka jirta (ideoligical divide), mid ka mid ah kala qeybsanantaas xagga kala aaminsanaanta ayaa ah lacagaha lagu shaqeeyo (wages) in ay aad u sareeyaan halka wax soo saarka shaqaalaha uu aad u hooseeyo, bangiga aduunka ayaa sheegay sanadka markuu ahaa 1978s carqaladaha hortaagnaa Africa in ay warshadeyn u gudubto uu yahay mushaaraadka oo sareeyo ayadoo wax qabdkana uu aad u yar yahay (World Bank, 1978). Waxa kale ku raacsan ra’yigaas bangiga aduunka Lindauer and Velenchik (1994) sareynta mushaaraadka marka loo barbardhigo wax soo saarka shaqaalaha. Si kastoy ahaataba hoos u dhaca runta mushaaraadka (real wages) ee qaarada waxa uu jilciyey aragtidan.
Sidaa darteed, waxa muhiim ah in la baaro qaab dhismeedka suuqa shaqaalaha Africa, wadamada Africa badankood waxa ay ku sifaysanyihiin suuqooda shaqaalaha shaqaale dheeri ah (labor surplus) marka la barbar dhigo kuwa kale ee wax lagu soo saaro, waxaana ugu wacan gumeystihii ka horeeyey waxa uu dhaxalsiiyey iyo hidaha iyo dhaqanka qaarada ay leedahay oo duufsaday qaab dhismeedka suuq geynta suuqa shaqaalaha (labor supply).
Tirade kobaca suuq geynta suuqa shaqaalaha aad ayuu u sareeyaa waxa laga heli karo qeybaha kale ee aduunka, tirade sandkii ku korarta suuq geynta xooga shaqaalaha wadamada saharah ee 1980s waa 2.6 percent marka loo barbar dhigo koonfurta Asiya oo ah 2.2 percent iyo 1.8 percent bariga Asiya. Kobacan waxa uu si aad ah uga badan yahay tirade kobac ee wadama horumaray marka ay soo bilaabayeen dhaqaalahooda, waxa kaloo meesha ka marneyn in la fiiriyo profilka shaqaalaha oo ayadana muhiim ah.
Waxa kaloo meesha ku jirta qaabka qeybsiga bulshada 1990 ilaa 2000 waxay tusinaysaa wax ka yar boqolkiiba 21 in ay yihiin wax ka yar 20 sano boqolkiiba 6 percent ay ko koreeyaan 60 sano sidoo kale shaqaalaha Africa badankoodna ay yihiin rag, dumarka waxa ay u dhigmaan 32.5 boqolkiiba xoogga shaqaalaha 1990 ilaa 2015.
Saameynta suuqa shaalaha ay ku leedahay kobaca
(Oyeranti, 1999) waxa uu ka hadlay sida suuqa shaqaalaha wax soo saarka carqalad ku yahay kobaca Africa. si kastoo loo sameeyey is bedelo suuqa ah weli ma noqon mid tartama iyo mid wax tar leh, (institutional factors) wuu sii soconayaa inuu saameeyo shaqeynta suuqyadaasi iyo ku guuldareysiga suuqyada kale, cadaadis ay ku sameeyaan korarka mushaaraadka (wage increase) waxa ay is bedelada ay sameeyeen arintas dowladaha Africa oo dhan wey isku dayeen in ay joojiyaan korarka mushaarka
- 0 replies
- 813 views
DrMahad added Ciwaanka Su'aasha in EconomicMuxuu yahay GDP?Gross Domestic Product oo loo soo gaabiyo (GDP) ayaa ah midka caalamka ku xisaabiyo wadan waliba dhaqaalihiisa oo micnaheedu yahay, qiimaha wax soo saarka gudaha dhamaan badeecadaha iyo adeegyada ugu danbeyn la isticmaalay laguna soo saaray wadanka gudahiisa waqti xadidadan, GDP xisaabintiisa wuxuu faa’iido u yahay in lagu ogaado wadanka wax soo saarkiisa sanadkan iyo kan ku xiga waxa iska badalay sidoo kale in laysku cabiro wadamada dhexdooda sida ay u kala badan yihiin tirada ama numberka GDP oo wadan walba inta uu ka sareeyo wadanka kale wuu ka awood dhaqaale fiican yahay, hadaba Somalia oo wadan dagaalo sokeeye ku soo jiray sanado badan ayaan si madax banaan u soo saarin GDP wadanka laakiin waxaa jira hay’ado caalami ah oo isku howlo si horudhac ah inay u sii qiyaasaan dhaqaalaha wadamada ayagoo soo bandhiga data ay ayaga qiyaasaan oon ka tarjumi karin waaqiciga dhabta ah ee ka jirta wadanka maadaama aan si dhab ah dadkii u dhashayba aysan usoo saarin waxaa ka mid ah data lagu soo bandhigay websiteyo calami ah sida websitkan hoos ku xusan cinwaankiisa
www.indexmundi.com/somalia/economy_profile.html waxay cadeynaysaa GDP ga Somalia inuu yahay 5.896 billion (2010est) GDP PPP oo laga soo gaabiyey Purchasing Power Parity asagana uu yahay 5.79 billion (2009 est) wuxuu u kala baxaa GDP mid magac ahaan iska ah iyo mid run ah midka runta ah waxaa laga saaraa sicir barrakii dhacay wadanka gudahiisa kaas oo keeni kara tirada in uu ka badiyo waxa dhabta ah korarka sicirka awgeed laakiin marka laga saaro sicir bararka ay soo baxayso waxa dhabta ah ee uu kordhay wax soo saarka gudaha (GDP) waxa lagu soo bandhigay webkaas in ay tilmaamayso in uu yahay is bedelka mid taagan oo ah (constatnt ) wax is bedel ahna ka muuqanin 2.6 yahay ilaa 2012 GDP - real growth rate 2.6% (2010 est.) 2.6% (2012 est.) 2.6% (2008 est.).
- 1 reply
- 1,490 views
DrMahad added Ciwaanka Su'aasha in Public Administration & International RelationshipLeadership versus management - Hogaaminta iyo MaamulkaLeadership vs. Management
What is the difference between management and leadership? It is a question that has been asked more than once and also answered in different ways. The biggest difference between managers and leaders is the way they motivate the people who work or follow them, and this sets the tone for most other aspects of what they do.
Many people, by the way, are both. They have management jobs, but they realize that you cannot buy hearts, especially to follow them down a difficult path, and so act as leaders too.
Managers have subordinates
By definition, managers have subordinates - unless their title is honorary and given as a mark of seniority, in which case the title is a misnomer and their http://changingminds.org/explanations/power/power.htmoverothersisotherthanformal authority.
Authoritarian, transactional style
Managers have a position of authority vested in them by the company, and their subordinates work for them and largely do as they are told. Management style is http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/styles/transactional_leadership.htm, in that the manager tells the subordinate what to do, and the subordinate does this not because they are a blind robot, but because they have been promised a reward (at minimum their salary) for doing so.
Managers are paid to get things done (they are subordinates too), often within tight constraints of time and money. They thus naturally pass on this work focus to their subordinates.
An interesting research finding about managers is that they tend to come from stable home backgrounds and led relatively normal and comfortable lives. This leads them to be relatively risk-averse and they will seek to avoid conflict where possible. In terms of people, they generally like to run a 'happy ship'.
Leaders have followers
Leaders do not have subordinates - at least not when they are leading. Many organizational leaders do have subordinates, but only because they are also managers. But when they want to lead, they have to give up formal authoritarian control, because to lead is to have followers, and following is always a voluntary activity.
Charismatic, transformational style
Telling people what to do does not inspire them to follow you. You have to appeal to them, showing how following them will lead to their hearts' desire. They must want to follow you enough to stop what they are doing and perhaps walk into danger and situations that they would not normally consider risking.
Leaders with a stronger http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/styles/charismatic_leadership.htmfinditeasiertoattractpeople to their cause. As a part of their persuasion they typically promise http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/styles/transformational_leadership.htm benefits, such that their followers will not just receive extrinsic rewards but will somehow become better people.
Although many leaders have a charismatic style to some extent, this does not require a loud personality. They are always good with people, and http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/styles/quiet_leader.htmstylesthatgivecredittoothers (and takes blame on themselves) are very effective at creating the loyalty that great leaders engender.
Although leaders are good with people, this does not mean they are friendly with them. In order to keep the mystique of leadership, they often retain a degree of separation and aloofness.
This does not mean that leaders do not pay attention to tasks - in fact they are often very achievement-focused. What they do realize, however, is the importance of enthusing others to work towards their vision.
In the same study that showed managers as risk-averse, leaders appeared as http://changingminds.org/explanations/preferences/risk_bias.htm, although they are not blind thrill-seekers. When pursuing their vision, they consider it natural to encounter problems and hurdles that must be overcome along the way. They are thus comfortable with risk and will see routes that others avoid as potential opportunities for advantage and will happily break rules in order to get things done.
A surprising number of these leaders had some form of handicap in their lives which they had to overcome. Some had traumatic childhoods, some had problems such as dyslexia, others were shorter than average. This perhaps taught them the independence of mind that is needed to go out on a limb and not worry about what others are thinking about you.
This table summarizes the above (and more) and gives a sense of the differences between being a leader and being a manager. This is, of course, an illustrative characterization, and there is a whole spectrum between either ends of these scales along which each role can range. And many people lead and manage at the same time, and so may display a combination of behaviors.
- 2 replies
- 1,579 views
DrMahad added Ciwaanka Su'aasha in EconomicSidee loo yareyn karaa shaqo la'aanta wadanka?Waxaa wadamada soo koraya gaar ahaan qaarada Afrika dhaqaalahooda la dagay xoog tira badan oo ay leeyihiin oo aan laga shaqeysiinin halka xoogaasi tirada badan hadii uu shaqeyn lahaa wax soo saar fiican u yeelan lahaa qaarada guud ahaan iyo wadanka si gaar ahaan waxaana aduunku hadda noqday Globlization oo micnaheedu yahay in aduunka isku xiran yahay dhan walba laysna arkayo laysna maqlayo hal daqiiqo wax ka yar, sidaa darteeda hadi meel shqo la'aan ka jirto halka meelaha kalena ay shaqadu taalo dadka waxay bilaabayaan inay u hayaamaan goobahaas taas oo mar labaad ku keeni karta hoos u dhac dhaqaale, hadaba ayadoo la ogyahay wadanka soomaaliya oo dagaalo sokeeya ay horay ula hareen inay u sii dheer tahay dhaqaalo xumo wax soo saar la'aan shaqo la'aantii oo aad u badan waxa la dhihi karaa sidee loo yareyn karaa shqo la'aantaas baahsan qaarada Africa kuu caan baxday si guuu dahaan si gaar ahaanna soomaaliya?
Dabcan shaqo la'aantu laba arimood ayaa loo yareyn karaa hadaan u kala qaadno shaqo la'aanta xalinteeda sida soo socota:
1 Shaqsi ahaan .( Personal )
2.Dowlad ahaan (Government)
1. Qof waliba waxaa mas'uuliyad ka saran tahay in uu xaliyo shaqo la'aanta soo wajahda kuna xaliyo in uu raadiyo shaqo waqtigiisa qeyb ka mid ahna ku bixiyo in uu ka qeyb qaato wax soo saarka wadanka sida uu ku heli karo shaqo ayaa waxay tahay in uu xirfadiisa shqo soo bandhigo isuna sheego waxa uu yahay haduu mudan yahay in shaqadaasi lagu aamino sida nabi Yusuf markii uu is cadeynayey uu yiri in loo dhiiibo boqrnimada wuxuu yiri anigu waxaan ahay qof aamin ah cilmina u leh howsha aan dalbanayo in la ii dhiibo, hadii sidaas uusan shaqo ku helin wuxuu abuuri karaa shaqo asaga u gaar ah kuna shaqeysta asagoo ku raadinya si xalaal ah, tusaaale ahaan wuxuu sameyn karaa in uu furto meel xirfadiisa dadka ku bari karo kuna heli karo lacag.
2. Mida dowlada waxa ay tahay hadii mas'uuliyadaas shaqsiyeed lagu guulaysanin oo wadanka dhan dhibaatada shaqo la'aantu ku badato dowlada ayaa laga rabaa in ay xaliso una dajiso siyaasado suuqa isku jaan gooyn kara shaqada taala tirada dad ee shaqo la'aanta ku habsatay waxayna dowladu abuuraysaa shaqooyin wax tar u leh wadanka.
- 4 replies
- 1,523 views
DrMahad added Ciwaanka Su'aasha in EconomicSHAQO LA'AANTA, NOOCYADEEDA, WAXA KEENA IYO XALKEEDA.Maxay tahay shaqo la'aantu? Muxuse yahay shaqo waayaha?
Sida aan ognahay shaqo la'aantu waa arin si guud uga dhacda magaalo, wadan ama qaarad marka xoogga shaqaale uu ka bato shaqada taala suuqa. Shaqo waayahu waa qofka raadinaya shaqo balse aanan helaynin shaqadii uu u baahnaa, hadaba waxaa laga yaabaa qofka si dhameystiran inuusan u shaqeynin balse uu shaqeeyo gelin ka mid ah waqtigiisa wuxuuna jeclaan lahaa inuu si dhameystiran u shaqeeyo hadaba maxaa lagu tiriyaa qofkaasi ma qof shaqeeyaa mise waa qof aan shaqeynin? waxaase jira qof ka quustay shaqadii helideeda oo joojiyey raadinta shaqada, qofkaasi maxaa lagu tirayaa shaqo waaye mise asaga ayanba raadin shaqada oo ma noqon karo shaqo waaye.
- 8 replies
- 2,685 views