DrMahad

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  1. DrMahad added a post in a topic: Waa maxay scope and nature of public administration   

    Maamulka Guud (Public Administration) waxa  ay  xooga saaraysa maamulida guud  iyo doorarka uu ciyaaro waa dhaqan gelinta shuruucda iyo siyaasadaha wadanka iyo ka shaqeynta arimaha dowlidnimada iyo soo arurinta dakhliga dowladeed iyo maamulka nimaadsan ee bixinta adeegyada dpowlada. 
  2. DrMahad added a post in a topic: Maxa Iga Caawin Kara In Dhaqaalahygu Sare u kaco Ama Kabco Si Bilaash Ah   


    Waxaa kaa caawin kara in dhaqaalahaada kor u kaco si personal ah:
    shaqada saacadaha  aa shaqeysid badi.yareey qarashada aan muhiimka aheyn.kordhisid wax dhigashada shaqsiyeed (Personal saving).Hadii aad tahay company ama ganacsi yar waa inaad  abuurtaa macamiil badan si baahida loo qabo badeecadada u kororta taas ayaa ku keeni karta kobaca ganacsigaada. Bishiiba waa in aad sameysaa suuq geyn xoog badan aadna ilaalisaa macamiishada baahidooda iyo daryeel xoog badan in loo sameeyo macamiisha.
     
    Mahadsanid
    Aflixi.com
  3. DrMahad added a post in a topic: Sidee u kobcin kara dhaqaalaha ama ganacsi yar   

    Waxaad ku kobcin kartaa ganacsigada yar arimo dhowr ah:
    1. In aad macamiilkaada ixtiraamtid oo wax fiican u qabatid. Sabatana waxay tahay macamiilkaada waa faa'iidadaada, faa'iidada aad faa'iido waxay la socotaa macaamiilkaada mar kasto ay yaraadaan waxaa yaraanaya faa'iidadaada.
    2. Xayeysii ganacsigaada si aad u soo xareysid macaamiil cusub, waxaa aad soo saartidna kala bedbedal si macaamiilkaada uga caajisan alaabtaada ama adeega aad bixisid
    3. Ku celi faa' iidada aad ka hesho ganacsiga qeyb ka mid ah bulshada
    4. U sameey macaamiilkada ka yareyn qiimaha ( discounting)
    5. Haduu qiimaha lagu soo saaro badeecada kugu kordho, kordhinta qiimaha la gado si fiican uga fiirso marka aad kordhinaysid sida nooca macaamiilkaada iyo waxa aad soo saartid noocooda
    Talaabooyinkaas oo lagu guulaysto waxay keeni karaan in ganacsigaada yar kobco.
     
    Mahadsanidiin
    Aflixi.com
  4. DrMahad added a post in a topic: waaa maxay spss?   

    Waa aalad loo sticmaalo in lagu faaqido xogta cilmi baarista, waxaa laga soo gaabiyey Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
  5. DrMahad added a post in a topic: waa maxay cosumer to cosumer   


    What is Customer to customer (C2C)?

    Customer to customer (C2C) is a business model that facilitates an environment where customers can trade with each other.



    Advantages and Disadvantages of C2C

    Advantages
    Papal set up directly for this reason.
    ·         Broader market.
    ·         Eliminates intermediary.
    ·         Constantly changing, updating.

    Disadvantages
    ·         No quality control
    ·         No payment guarantee
    ·         Hard to pay for using cheques, ATM, cards, etc. but future this is likely to change.


  6. DrMahad added a post in a topic: Causes and Macroeconomic Effects Of The Souring Public Debt In Most Sub Saharan African Economies   

    1.0 Introduction
    The public debt has caused stagnant economies in most Sub Sahara Africa countries and remained under developed economies over decades and this is the major problem facing most Sub Sahara African countries and that is how to handle with the external debts which are also a fundamental cause of the fiscal crisis in the Sub -Sahara countries. The Africa’s inability to control the economy  and sustain development because of the fiscal stress and low per capita growth  in Sub Sahara countries generated by the recession and high external debt which is finally translated into the backwardness of Sub Sahara African (SSA) countries since the external debt was relatively high than the domestic debt and the domestic debt is indigenous circulating the money within the country while the external debt is exogenous but the situation of overall debt has deteriorated since the late 1990's.  
     
    According to African Forum and Network on Debt and Development report (AFRODAD, 2011)  highlighted that domestic debt levels have risen significantly over the recent years and worryingly, this is mostly in the very same countries that experienced problems with external debt and this deterioration has an adverse implications for both stabilization and macroeconomic management policies. The increased high rate of external debt in Sub-Sahara African countries (SSA) resulted in a high interest burden, because of the delayed debt service earns additional interest payments that increases the burden of the original debt which led Africa’s inability to allocate resources or expenditures for critical poverty alleviating and remained one of the poorest countries in the world.  (Milton, 1999) presented a good and empirical evidence for the backwardness of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries since per capita income (measured by gross national product per person) declined at an average annual rate of 2.2%). Per capita private consumption fell by 14.8%; export volume was stagnant while import volume plummeted at an average annual rate of 4.3%; and the terms of trade fell by 9.1% however, the average annual growth rate of real GDP per capita between 1981 and 1990 was -0.9%.
    The central question remains unanswered over decades is how Sub-Sahara Africa countries bridge this problem and where the sources of this vicious circle come from?
     
    According to African economic outlook (2012), described that Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) had the lowest aggregate level of human development in 2011, albeit posting the second fastest annual increase over the period 2000-11. Improved policies will not suffice to sustain high rates of growth of human development; therefore, this paper focuses the macroeconomic effects of public debt on Sub-Sahara Countries, so  after introduced the nature of the public debt in the introduction, the paper discussed in section 2 causes and sources of public debt while the paper will present macroeconomic effects of public debt in section 3, remedial steps will be highlighted in section 4 and section 5 concluding remarks will be given.
     
    2. Causes and Sources of Public Debt in SSA
    High public debt is an issue become prominent in Sub- Sahara African countries which hinders the level of living standard of 600 million people inhabiting it, there are several causes contributing to the increase of public debt, thus to be fully understood the debt crisis of sub-Saharan African countries, I highlight some of them, therefore in order to tackle the public debt and solve the problems created by increased public debt, the causes of public debt must be first understood.

    The following are the causes:
    1.      Increased government spending
    2.      Increased Budget Deficits
    3.      Over borrowing by the developing countries
     
    Any country that fails to manage and stabilize its debt at the optimum level  by minimizing the causes and  sources of public debt  such as if government expenditure exceeds its revenue the government incurs a deficit then if deficits accumulates it becomes debt  then that country will experience debt overhang problems. These come in the forms of disincentive effect, crowding out effect and import compression effect.
    As mentioned by Milton ( 1999) the external debt of sub-Saharan African countries witnessed a rapid build-up during the period immediately following the global debt crisis with external debt obligations skyrocketing from US$84 billion in 1980 to US$223.3 billion in 1995. (See Table1 for details). Thus, SSA’s external debt stock increased by 265.8% in 15 years, i.e., it grew at an average rate of 6.7% per annum.
     
    Table 1: Total external debt, 1970&95 (US$ million)
     
    Year                                 Total external debt                                     growth in external debt %
     1970                                 8,296 -
    1971                                   9,772                                                                              17.79
    1972                                  11,235                                                                             14.97
    1973                                  15,168                                                                             35.01
    1974                                  19,340                                                                             27.51
    1975                                  22,721                                                                             17.48
    1976                                  26,996                                                                             18.82
    1977                                  33,705                                                                             24.85
    1978                                  43,655                                                                             29.52
    1979                                  55,485                                                                             27.10
    1980                                  84,049                                                                             51.48
    1981                                  75,668                                                                             -9.97
    1982                                  81,946                                                                              8.30
    1983                                  88,233                                                                              7.67
    1984                                  83,866                                                                              0.72
    1985                                  96,396                                                                              8.47
    1986                                  127,145                                                                            31.90
    1987                                  162,629                                                                            27.91
    1988                                  164,981                                                                            1.45
    1989                                  171,236                                                                            3.79
    1990                                  190,260                                                                            11.11
    1991                                  194,779                                                                            2.38
    1992                                  192,781                                                                           -1.03
    1993                                  197,886                                                                            2.65
    1994                                  212.416                                                                            7.34
    1995                                  223,298                                                                            5.12
     Source:  AERC Research Paper 90 African Economic Research Consortium, Nairobi
    March 1999 and World Bank report (1996).
    3. Macroeconomic Effects of Public Debt
    (lyoha, 1999) described that macroeconomic effects of public debt are pervasive in Sub-Sahara African countries (SSA) because of that debt  they suffer low income, low savings and low investment, the current high levels of debt and debt servicing in Sub- Sahara countries would militate against rapid economic growth and development, which  led to the low standard of  living in these countries, indeed, some analysts and international policy makers appear to have reached a consensus to the effect that a satisfactory recovery of investment and output growth in indebted SSA countries will remain difficult, perhaps unattainable, as long as they are saddled with a burden of debt servicing that requires a sizeable net transfer of resources abroad. Stated simply, there is no way in which many SSA countries can service their debt and still have adequate resources left for development finance. Thus, many now believe that a necessary condition for economic growth and development in SSA is debt relief. This must go beyond debt rescheduling and even beyond the “Naples terms” (the latest initiative by executive countries). It could be a policy package that combines debt reduction (debt or debt service write-down) with a significant amount of debt forgiveness (write-off of official debt and perhaps write-down of commercial debt) for the low-income SSA countries. This seems to me that the effect of skyrocketing debt is the main hindrance for economic growth and development in sub-Sahara African countries, as mentioned by lyoha (1999) the investment and GDP were very low and also reached the level that can be called the  Gross domestic investment collapsed in sub-Saharan Africa in the 198Os, especially starting from 1983. According to World Bank data, from a level of US$44 billion in 1981, gross domestic investment rapidly fell to a low of US$23 billion in 1984. From that level, it rose slowly, reaching US$37.6 in 1991. According to the World Bank (1994b), the average annual growth rate of gross domestic investment was 5.1% between 1970 and 1980, but was -3% between 1980 and 1992. As may be expected, the investment/ GDP ratio also declined sharply. In analyzing the movement of the investment/GDP ratio, the World Bank (1992b) shows that while the annual average ratio was 21.5% in19751979, it collapsed to 15.6% in 1980-1985. Indeed, if the period 1983-1986 is considered, it is found that the average investment/GDP ratio was only 13%. In fact, from a ratio 26% of GDP in 1977, the investment ratio fell to a catastrophic 12.8% in 1984. No doubt, a fall in gross domestic saving partly accounts for this. World Bank (1992b) statistics show that the ratio of gross domestic saving to GDP, which averaged 18.9% in1975-1979, had fallen to 13.4% in198&1985.
     
    All these imperial macro econometrics figures which have being done by Iyoha shows us that the macroeconomic affects of debt for these countries are very high. To support his findings this burden of debt has led backwardness to the Sub-Sahara countries (SSA) and also depresses investment and growth through both disincentive effect and crowding out effect because the high debt servicing has a negative effect on the growth process.
     
    4.      Remedial Polices of the problem
    1.      External Debt Sustainability
    (Osinubi, 2006), suggested that the first step to remedy the  problem of external debt is to maintain the sustainability of external debt  he argued that if it can meet its current and future external debt service obligations in full, without resource to debt scheduling or the accumulation of arrears and without compromising growth so once the current burden and future obligations is reduced to sustainable levels it is possible to eliminate the disincentive effect of a heavy debt burden on investment and new capital inflows, thereby improving growth prospects.
    2.      Optimal Level of Borrowin
    (Osinubi, 2006), also suggested that If properly used what is borrowed from external resources may greatly benefit a developing country and contribute to its growth – they add to the total resources available to an economy over a given period. However, such borrowing is desirable when it is used to finance investment that is expected to yield an adequate rate of return or to smoothen consumption in the face of an uneven aggregate supply, since it can provide a level of economic welfare that could not otherwise be obtained. It is important to stress that if debt problems are to be avoided, the investments financed by foreign borrowing must have a real economic rate of return that is at least equal to the real rate of interest. And since the borrowing is presumably in foreign currency, the required equal rate of return must also be expressed in foreign currency (Obadan, 1999).  Also suggested that the same idea but if the conditions for optimal borrowing are violated then external debt becomes a burden and the country can no longer sustain the existing level of debt stock. The concept of external debt sustainability has occupied a center-stage in recent analyses of the debt problem of developing nations.
    5. Conclusion
    In summary, this paper is carried out to explain the causes of macroeconomic effects of public debt in Sub-Sahara African countries and in which ways they can remedy the burden of this debt, therefore, this paper and many other literatures reviewed, showed that it cannot be ignored the macroeconomic problems of public debt burden since it hinders the development and overall growth of the sectors of the economy, Sub-Sahara African countries should put in place to know the sources of these problems and continue improving the macroeconomic stability by minimizing  the current burden and future obligations of debt once it is reduced to a  sustainable levels it is possible to eliminate the disincentive effect of a heavy debt burden on investment and new capital inflows, thereby improving growth prospects.
     
    REFRENCES
    Budget deficits, external debt and economic growth in nigeria. Applied Econometrics and International Development , 6(3) 175-176.
    lyoha, M. (1999). External debt and economic growth in Sub-Sahara African countries:An econometric study.  Retreived May 20, 2014, from OUM online database.
    lyoha, M. (1999). External debt and economic and economic growth in Sub-Sahara African countries:An econometric study. Retreived May 20, 2014, from OUM online database.
    lyoha, M. (1999). External debt and economic and economic growth in Sub-Sahara African countries:An econometric study. Retreived May 20, 2014, from OUM online database. 
  7. DrMahad added a post in a topic: Do remittances offset Africa's brain drain?   

    DO REMITTANCES OFFSET AFRICA'S BRAIN DRAIN?
     
    INTRODUCTION
     
    A remittance is a transfer of money by a foreign worker to an individual in his or her home country. Money sent home by migrants competes with international aid as some of the largest financial inflows to developing countries. Remittances are playing an increasingly large role in the economies of many countries, contributing to economic growth and to the livelihoods of less prosperous people (though generally not the poorest of the poor) (Ratha, 2003). As remittance receivers often have a higher propensity to own a bank account, remittances promote access to financial services for the sender and recipient, an essential aspect of leveraging remittances to promote economic development. According to Ratha (2003), remittances have social significance that extends well beyond the mere financial dimensions in African countries. The recent increase in formal remittance flows can be explained by the increase in the number and income of migrants, the greater number of remittance providers, wider networks in the global financial services industry, and government policies that improve financial market access, all of which have reduced remittance costs and promoted the use of official remittance channels (Yang & Martinez, 2006). Whatever the reasons behind this surge, the growing importance of remittances as a source of foreign exchange and their contribution to economic development have attracted increasing attention from policy-makers and academics alike.
     
    Brain drain refers to the departure or emigration of individuals with technical skills or knowledge from organizations, industries and geographical regions. It is common in developing nations, particularly in many former African colonies, the island nations of the Caribbean and in centralized economies such as the former East Germany and the Soviet Union (Skeldon, 2008). Remittances are transfers of money, goods and diverse traits by migrants or migrant groups back to their countries of origin or citizenship. Although the notion of remittances conjures only monetary aspect, remittances embrace monetary and non-monetary flows, including social remittances. Yang and Martinez (2006), defines diaspora’s social remittances as ideas, practices, mind-sets, world views, values and attitudes, norms of behavior and social capital (knowledge, experience and expertise) that the diasporas mediate and either consciously or unconsciously transfer from host to home communities.
    African Remittances
    The African brain drain is not large enough to have much effect on Africa’s skill gap relative to the rest of the world. Since other regions had a larger brain drain, the skill gap between Africa and the rest would actually be larger in a counterfactual world of no brain drain with the same amount of skill creation. According to one of our calculations, the present value of remittances more than covers the cost of educating a brain drainer in the source country (Rodriguez & Horton, 1994). Brain drain has a positive effect on skill accumulation that appears to offset one for one the loss of skills to the brain drain. Hence it is not surprising that we fail to identify any negative growth effect of the brain drain in Africa. African diaspora interviewed stated that they obtained social remittances from different sources: through professional expertise in work places in the host countries; through values, norms and work ethics; through their socialization and acculturation in host countries; and by constructing vast transnational networks across countries and continents, linking the process of globalization to ‘globalization’ in their countries of origin (Oucho, 2008).
    According to Mutume (2005), sub-Saharan Africa, western Africa receive nearly double the remittances to the entire block, with Nigeria, Ghana and Senegal, in descending order, dominating the pack. Eastern Africa is topped by Kenya, followed by Somalia, Uganda and Ethiopia. Apart from Kenya, the rest are countries that have had political problems which left conflict in their wake, the last two attracting remittances as an important resource for national construction. Central African countries of Angola and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) lead the packing receiving remittances. Finally, in Southern Africa, South Africa is by far the main recipient, with Lesotho second – a well-known remittance- and deferred payment dependent economy. Remittances alone are unlikely to lift people out of poverty; rather it is their interplay with other economic, social and cultural factors which determine the scale and type of impact remittances can have on poverty reduction. While remittances to Africa amounted to US$5.9 billion in 1990, it reached US$ 14billion by 2003, which was a mere 15 per cent of all remittance flows to the developing world. The leading recipient countries have been Algeria, Morocco and Egypt in Northern Africa. In sub-Saharan Africa, Nigeria, with remittances exceedingUS$1.3 million is by far the largest recipient, accounting for 30-60 per cent of the regions receipts (Mutume, 2005). While some other latest estimates suggested that the total amount of Africans working abroad send home amounts some US$45 billion a year.
    Negative Impacts of Brain drain in Africa
    The growing international transfer of human capital from Africa to the developed countries undermines the human capital development efforts in this region. Evidently most migrants are even more highly educated than the average citizen of their home countries (Belfield 2000). Often the best brain immigrants have enjoyed subsidized education offered by their government from taxpayer money and afterwards leave for greener pastures once their higher education training is completed. The loss of highly skilled professionals has several negative consequences for the economy of Africa. African businesses; and influencing the political climate by infusing democratic political habits, sometimes acting as pressure groups; shortage of skilled people limits the economic growth, While the brain drain is beneficial its flaws are inherently in its title because it usually involves the loss of human capital i.e. skilled labour force who are vital to the development of society and the country as a whole. In the case of skilled man power emigration of the skilled workers as “essentially providing personal benefits for individuals rather than public benefits.
    Impact on the health systems in Africa despite the existence of significant global efforts trying to improve health and healthcare systems in the developing world, the money invested is insufficient as health workers from the developing countries leave their home countries and immigrate to the developed world assuming low-status positions in rich countries (Belfield 2000). As a result of many local health workers abandoning their countries, countries in Africa, developing world lack sufficient health care workers, which harm the local health system: health systems in the developing world are receiving financial aid to deal with significant diseases and health issues such as child mortality, AIDS, and Malaria. However the money is ineffective as there is no sufficient manpower in the form of medical and health professionals to do the work required, which further damages the health system rather than strengthening it (Belfield 2000).
     
    Poverty; the impact of migration and remittances, on poverty is complex and difficult to disentangle given the reciprocal relationship between the two. Poverty and vulnerability provide incentives to migrate and on the other reduce the ability to move due to high transfer costs involved (Adams & Page, 2003). Those engaged in international migration are not the poorest of the poor as they must of necessity have some resources to facilitate their movement; first, remittances stimulate formation of small-scale enterprises thereby promoting community development. In different parts of rural Africa, recipient communities are economically vibrant relative to communities that never receive any migrants. Remittances ease credit constraints by providing working capital for the recipients who consequently engage in entrepreneurial activities (Adams & Page, 2003).
    The implications for poor sending countries are stark. According to Belfield (2000), African countries lose 20,000 skilled personnel to the developed world every year. All the developed world's efforts to increase aid to these countries may not matter if the local personnel required to implement development programs are absent. Every year there are 20,000 fewer people in Africa to deliver key public services, drive economic growth, and articulate calls for greater democracy and development, however, there is a need to devise measures that recognize that greater mobility, not less mobility, is likely to be the most sustainable and efficient response over the long term. However, this approach presents an immense challenge: how to tap into the immense economic and other benefits migration can deliver for individuals and receiving countries, while simultaneously ensuring that sending countries also benefit.
    Salary discrepancies and differences in working conditions between African and developed countries stimulate brain drain. Most African economies have experienced wage freezes, currency devaluation and rampant inflation. These conditions lead skilled people to seek safer countries where remuneration is consistent with qualifications and working experience, and where currencies are less subject to devaluation than in Africa.
    Positive Impacts of Brain drain in Africa
    The effects of remittance on countries of origin are even more complex. Certainly, the emigration of highly skilled nationals in particular leads to a significant loss of skills available for development. Yet, labour migration and brain circulation lead to a more efficient allocation of manpower within the African continent as well as overseas, and decreases social tensions in the countries of origin. Migrants acquire new skills and experience that are useful for their home countries, and transfer significant parts of their earnings. Migrants stimulate trade between their countries of origin and the host countries (Mutume, 2005).Recent studies explore this nexus between migration and home-country development and inquire about the optimal level of brain drain.
     
    The return of migrants who have acquired new skills and knowledge abroad can be considered a form of knowledge transfer. In as much as the application of knowledge depends on the availability of technology, knowledge transfer is necessarily accompanied by a technology transfer. Even in case the migrants do not return home, however, they can still contribute to the development of their home countries (Beine, Frédéric & Hillel 2002). While staying abroad, they might promote cooperation between universities, technological research centres and business associations of the home and host countries. Internet- and satellite-based information technology greatly enhances this cooperation potential. Remittance can contribute to development in countries of origin. A crucial policy challenge of the future is to involve the skilled members of the African diaspora in innovative forms of cooperation and knowledge transfer to promote the expansion and sustainability of key-sectors for national development. Remittances are playing an increasingly large role in the economies of many countries, contributing to economic growth and to the livelihoods of less prosperous people.
     
    Economic importance of remittances; the balance of payments statistics of the international monetary fund found that one of the major data sources of official remittances, reveals a significant global increase of migrants transfers. In most African countries e.g. Cape Verde, Cameroon, Ghana, Madagascar, Mali, Morocco, Senegal, Togo and Tunisia, the amount of annual official remittances increased by almost 100 per cent. There are economic developments in the countries of destination of migrants. According to Beine, Frédéric and Hillel (2002), it is safe to the developing countries’ economies since they do not currently rely on a steady flow of migrant’s financial transfers.  The recent increase in formal remittance flows can be explained by the increase in the number and income of migrants, the greater number of remittance providers, wider networks in the global financial services industry, and government policies that improve financial market access, all of which have reduced remittance costs and promoted the use of official remittance channels. Official remittances do represent considerable financial inflows in many developing countries, and are, therefore, an economic reality that should not be neglected.
     
    Poverty reduction; It targets transfers received in money, food and non-food goods from either internal or international sources. Applying a series of econometric model, the study found that households receiving internal remittances (that is from Ghana)have the lowest mean per capita expenditure and have the highest observed poverty on average of all the household groups; that households receiving international remittances from external sources) have the highest mean per capita expenditure and the lowest observed poverty on average of all the household groups ( Belfield, 2000); that international remittances have a greater impact on poverty reduction; and that both internal and international remittances have a negative impact on income inequality, as measured by the Gini coefficient. The study concludes that poverty reduction depends on the type of remittances being received, which leads us to caution that it is important to ascertain the kind of poverty being targeted (Beine, Frédéric & Hillel 2002).
     Conclusion
    Remittances can offset Africa's brain drain. The international flow of highly educated workers presents a critical challenge to developing countries particularly in Africa. For African countries to harness remittances in their development process, they should formulate policies in which they involve the diaspora, improve the investment environment and be constantly responsive to changes positively affecting utilization of the two resources. Policy frameworks and programmes targeting the diaspora and remittances could benefit from those already elaborated in Latin America where the two resources have made significant contributions. African countries should incorporate the contribution of their diaspora and remittances in national development planning and programmes. This could be done through African countries’ sustained engagement with the diaspora in multiple facets of development. Africa will continue to experience large-scale population movements, especially outwards. Labour-related migration will continue to provide a way to escape poverty or other forms of hardship at home; however, it also provides a way for educated, skilled and qualified persons to expand their career potential in today’s increasingly globalized world.
     
    REFERENCES
     
    Adams, R.H. and Page, J. (2003) “The Impact of Migration and remittances on Poverty”, Poverty Reduction Group, The World Bank. Paper prepared for DFID/World Bank Conference on Migrant Remittances, London, 9-10 October 2003.
    Beine, Michel, Frédéric Docquier, and Hillel Rapport.(2002). Brain Drain and LDCs’ Growth: Winners and Losers (Working Paper No. 129). Palo Alto, CA: Center for Research on Economic Development and Policy Reform, Stanford University.
    Belfield, Clive R. (2000). Economic Principles for Education: Theory and Evidence. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
    Mutume, G. (2005) “Workers’ remittances: a boon o development”, AfricaRenewal19 (3):1-9
    Oucho, J. O. (1990) “Migrant Linkages in Africa: Retrospect and Prospect”, in the Union for African Population Studies (UAPS), Commissioned Papers, Conference on the Role of Migration in African Development: Issues and Policies for the 90s”.Dakar: UAPS, pp. 109-141.
    Ratha, D. (2003) “Workers’ remittances: An Important and Stable Source of External Development Finance”, in World Bank (2003) Global Development Finance 2003, Chapter 7, Washington, D.C.: World Bank.
    Rodriguez, E. and S. Horton (1994) “International Return Migration and Remittances in the Philippines”, in D. O’Connor and L. Farsakh (eds.) Development Strategy, Employment and Migration. Country Experiences, Paris: OECD Development Centre.
    Skeldon, Ronald (2008)."Of skilled migration, Brain Drains and Policy". International Migration 47 (4): 3–29. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2435.2008.00484.x.
    Yang, D. and C. A. Martinez (2006) “Remittances and Poverty in Migrants’ Home Areas: Evidence from the Philippines”, in Ozden, C. and M. Schiff (eds.) op. cit.
  8. DrMahad added a post in a topic: waa maxay public admestaration   

    Maamulaka Guud (Public Adminstration) Waa cilmi ama disipiline lagu barto dhaqan gelinta iyo diyaarinta shaqaalaha rayidka ah dowlada si ay uga shaqeeeeyaan howlaha guud ee dowlada waxaa kaloo la dhihi karaa waa maamulida programska guud ee dowlada waxay tarjuman siyaasadaha jira si dhab ah his ay dadka caadiga u arkaan maalin walba.
  9. DrMahad added a post in a topic: Hab dhaqamedka Suuqa Shaqaalaha Africa (The behavior of labor markets in Africa)   

    Horudhac

    Qormadan waxa ay sharxi doontaa hab dhaqameedka suuqa shaqaalaha Africa, maadaama suuqa Africa uu haysto shaqaalaha ugu weyn aduunka balse waxaa cad suuqa Africa dhanka wax dhalinta sida (factor markets) in uusan  dhameystirnayn  ayna yihiin wax tar la’aan, wuxuu xadidayaa kobaca dhaqaalaha Africa. Sidaa darteed,qormadan waxay iftiiminaysaa hab dhaqameedka suuqa shaqaalaha Africa iyo dabeecadaha hadda ka jira  dhanka wax dhalinta iyo xiirka uu la leeyahay kobaca dhaqaalaha in u guulaysto sidoo kale qormadan waxa ay soo jeedinaysaa siyaasado wax tar leh  oo dhanka dhaqaalaha ah kuwaas oo horu  marin kara wax tarka suuqa Africa kana dhigi kara shaqaalaha Africa kuwa la tartami kara shaqaalaha aduunka, (Oyeranti, 1999) wuxuu cabiray sida dowladaha Africa ay  u bilaabeen in ay sameeyaan is bedelo xagga dhaqaalaha ah si looga soo kabto guul darooyinkii horay u soo maray ka hor is bedeladaas inta aan la sameynin, tusiyayaasha dhaqaalaha Africa (economic indicators of Africa) waxay geliyeen qaarada Africa dhibaatooyin.

    Africa waxa ay ku sinbiriraxday muuqaalaka laga fahmi karo kaas oo laga soo dhaxlay labaatankii sano xornimada Africa ka danbeysay iyo xaaladda hadda taagan ee dhibaatada. xogta  tira koob ee Africa (statistics of Africa) waa kuwa aan muujinaynin wanaag, dekadaha Africa waa kuwa ugu faqrisan waana kuwa ugu culus xagga daymaha uguna liita xagga horumarka aduunka dhan,

    Wadamada Africa badankood waxay ay ka faqrisan yihiin hadda sida ay ahaayeen 1970s, sicir bararaka ka jira aad ayuu u sareeyaa, shaqa la;aanta aad ay u sara kacday kobaca dhaqaalaha hoos ayuu u dhacayaa marka loo eego 1980s, isku celcelis wax soo saarka gudaha ee qof walba (GDP per capita) dakhliga kobaciisa waa eber (zero) ama waxa uu ka hooseeyaa eber (negative) badanka wadamada Africa. Dhibaatooyinka hortaagan horumarka Africa waxa ay soo bandhigayan taxadiyaad halis ah. Isku dayo badan oola sameyay si  loogu sharxo kobaca Africa waxa soo baxaya wixii keeni lahaa kobacas ay hooseeyaan sida kaydsashada oo heerkeeda hooseeya (low saving level) heerka maal gelinta oo hooseeya (low investment level) iyo technoljiyada oo  hooseysa iyo siyaasado guracan iyo kuwa kale oo la soo jeediyey. Si kataba ha ahaatee, cadeymihii dhawaan la soo bandhigay ee kobaca dhaqaalaha gudaha (indigenous growth model) cadeymahas waxay tusiyeen  wax dhalinta dhaqameed (traditional factors) kuma filna in ay si fiican u sharxaan kobaca Africa. Qormadan waxaan ku qaadaa dhigaynaa kuna  samenaynaa faaqidaad baaritaan (exploratory analysis) ee suuqa wax  soo saarka iyo dabeecadihiisa, hay’adaha saameeya hab dhaqankiisa, ujeedadaas darted waxaan ku sharxaynaa qaab dhaqanka suuqa shaqaalaha Africa (labor market) iyo suuqa wax soo saarka (factor market) iyo sida suuqaasi  uusan u keenin kobac dhaqaale,  qormada inteeda kale  waxa ay sharxi doontaa saameynta xun ee yeelanayso arintan ka dibna qormada wey soo gabagabaynaysaa wayna soo jeedinaysaa talooyin wax ku ool ah.

    Qaab dhaqameedka suuqa Shaqaaalaha Africa

    (Oyeranti, 1999) waxa uu sheegay in hab dhaqanka suuqa shaqaalaha Africa iyo qaab muuqaalkiisauu ui  u qeybsan yahay kala aaminsanaanta kala duwan ee Africa shaqaalaheeda ka jirta (ideoligical divide), mid ka mid ah kala qeybsanantaas xagga kala aaminsanaanta ayaa ah lacagaha lagu shaqeeyo (wages) in ay aad u sareeyaan halka wax soo saarka shaqaalaha uu aad u hooseeyo, bangiga aduunka ayaa sheegay sanadka markuu ahaa 1978s carqaladaha hortaagnaa Africa in ay warshadeyn u gudubto uu yahay mushaaraadka oo sareeyo ayadoo wax qabdkana uu aad u yar yahay (World Bank, 1978). Waxa kale ku raacsan ra’yigaas bangiga aduunka Lindauer and Velenchik (1994) sareynta mushaaraadka marka loo barbardhigo wax soo saarka shaqaalaha. Si kastoy ahaataba hoos u dhaca runta mushaaraadka (real wages) ee qaarada waxa uu jilciyey aragtidan.

    Sidaa darteed, waxa muhiim ah in la baaro qaab dhismeedka suuqa shaqaalaha Africa, wadamada Africa badankood waxa ay ku sifaysanyihiin suuqooda shaqaalaha shaqaale dheeri ah (labor surplus) marka la barbar dhigo kuwa kale ee wax lagu soo saaro, waxaana ugu wacan  gumeystihii ka horeeyey waxa uu dhaxalsiiyey iyo hidaha iyo dhaqanka qaarada ay leedahay oo duufsaday qaab dhismeedka suuq geynta suuqa shaqaalaha (labor supply).

    Tirade kobaca suuq geynta suuqa shaqaalaha aad ayuu u sareeyaa waxa laga heli karo qeybaha kale ee aduunka, tirade sandkii ku korarta suuq geynta xooga shaqaalaha wadamada saharah ee 1980s waa 2.6  percent marka loo barbar dhigo koonfurta Asiya oo ah 2.2 percent iyo 1.8 percent bariga Asiya. Kobacan waxa uu si aad ah uga badan yahay tirade kobac ee wadama horumaray marka ay soo bilaabayeen dhaqaalahooda, waxa kaloo meesha ka marneyn in la fiiriyo profilka shaqaalaha oo ayadana muhiim ah.

    Waxa kaloo meesha ku jirta qaabka qeybsiga bulshada 1990 ilaa 2000 waxay tusinaysaa wax ka yar boqolkiiba 21 in ay yihiin wax ka yar 20 sano boqolkiiba 6 percent ay ko koreeyaan 60 sano sidoo kale shaqaalaha Africa badankoodna ay yihiin rag, dumarka waxa ay u dhigmaan 32.5 boqolkiiba xoogga shaqaalaha 1990 ilaa 2015.

    Saameynta suuqa shaalaha ay ku leedahay kobaca

    (Oyeranti, 1999) waxa uu ka hadlay sida suuqa shaqaalaha wax soo saarka carqalad ku yahay kobaca Africa. si kastoo loo sameeyey is bedelo suuqa ah weli ma noqon mid tartama iyo mid wax tar leh, (institutional factors) wuu sii soconayaa inuu saameeyo shaqeynta suuqyadaasi iyo ku guuldareysiga suuqyada kale, cadaadis ay ku sameeyaan korarka mushaaraadka (wage increase) waxa ay is bedelada ay sameeyeen arintas dowladaha Africa oo dhan wey isku dayeen in ay joojiyaan korarka mushaarka

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  10. DrMahad added a post in a topic: waa maxay project management system   

    Maamulida Mashruuca (Project Management) waa barashada la barto ku dabaqida cilmiga maamulka, xirfadaha, aaladaha iyo technikiska projectiga markaas la qabanayo iyo dhaqdhaqaaqiisa si loo helo wixii laga filaayey mashruucaasi inuu u qabsamooay si wax tar leh.
    Balse waxaa ka duwan nidaamka mashruuca maamulka (Project managemnt System) kaas oo ah u sameyn mashruucaas maamulkiiisa database iyo software la horumariyey si  loogu adeegsado mashruuca maamulkiisa.. 
  11. DrMahad added a post in a topic: waa maxay Economic   

    Economics ama cilmiga dhaqaalaha waa barashada la barto sida loo qoondeeyo kheyraadka yar kaasoo ku tartamaya  rabitaanka bani'aadamka aan xadidnayn.  
  12. DrMahad added a post in a topic: questionnaire   

    Waan kuu  mahad celinaynaa  Mudane Maxamed Cabdi, su'aasha qiimaha badan aad soo weydiisay bahda Aflixi iyo guud ahaan shacab weynaha soomaaliyeed  ee su'aashaasi ka jawaabi karta ama kaa gacan siin kartaba, hadii aan wax kaaga bidhaamiyo su'aashaada mowduuca aa dooratay waxaad u dooratay in aad xaqiijiso objectives aad u dejisay mowduucaaga marka aad rabtid in aad diyaarisid Questionnaire waxaad dib ugu laabanaysaa kana soo diyarinaysaa objectiveskii kuu daganaa kaas ayaad dadka weydiinaysaa waxa aa rabtid inaa ogaatid si dadka ay uga soo jawaabaan arimahaasi.
    1. Ku laabo obejectiveska ka diyaari su'aalo aad waydiinaysid dadka
    2. Ubandhig suppervisorkaada su'aalahaasi si uu kaaga saxo
    Waxaan filaa in aan wax kaaga bidhaamiyey su'aasha aad soo weydiisay, hadii intaa wax ka dheeri ah aad dareemaysid haka labalabeyn soo weydii Aflixi.com. 
    Mahadsanid
  13. DrMahad added a post in a topic: SHAQO LA'AANTA, NOOCYADEEDA, WAXA KEENA IYO XALKEEDA.   

    Waxaan ka arki karnaaa noocyada shaqo la'aantu u kala baxdo in ay tahay sababaha dhaliya shaqo la'aanta markeedii hore, waxay culimada dhaqallayahanadu ku sheegaan shaqo la'aantu in aysan  gaarin  zero oo  mar walba waxa jira qeyb shaqo la'aan noqonaya oo bulshada ka mid ah  ee waxay sheegaan(full employment )shaqaalaysiin dhamesytiran in la gaarayo marka la gaarsiiyo shaqo la'aanta midka loo yaqano (natural unemployment) shaqo la'aanta dabiiciga ah taasoo lagu macneeyo shaqo la'aanta mar waliba jira karta bulshada dhexdeeda.
    shaqo la'aantu badashadeeda waa sabaha kena in uu wadan hoos u dhac dhaqaale ku yimaado sababtoo ah hal qof oo shaqo la'aan noqdaa waxa hoos u dhaca wax soo saarka boqolkiiba labo  
  14. DrMahad added a post in a topic: Muxuu yahay GDP?   

    Gross Domestic Product oo loo soo gaabiyo (GDP) ayaa ah midka caalamka ku xisaabiyo wadan waliba dhaqaalihiisa  oo micnaheedu yahay, qiimaha wax soo saarka gudaha  dhamaan  badeecadaha iyo adeegyada ugu danbeyn la isticmaalay laguna soo saaray wadanka gudahiisa waqti xadidadan, GDP xisaabintiisa  wuxuu faa’iido u yahay in lagu ogaado wadanka wax soo saarkiisa sanadkan iyo kan ku xiga waxa iska badalay sidoo kale in laysku cabiro wadamada dhexdooda  sida ay u kala badan yihiin tirada ama  numberka GDP oo wadan walba inta uu ka sareeyo wadanka kale wuu ka awood dhaqaale fiican yahay, hadaba Somalia oo wadan dagaalo sokeeye ku soo jiray sanado badan ayaan si madax banaan u soo saarin GDP wadanka  laakiin waxaa jira hay’ado caalami ah oo isku howlo si horudhac ah inay u sii qiyaasaan dhaqaalaha wadamada ayagoo soo bandhiga data ay  ayaga qiyaasaan oon ka tarjumi karin waaqiciga dhabta ah ee ka jirta wadanka maadaama aan si dhab ah dadkii u dhashayba aysan usoo saarin waxaa ka mid ah data lagu soo bandhigay websiteyo calami ah sida websitkan hoos ku xusan cinwaankiisa
    www.indexmundi.com/somalia/economy_profile.html waxay cadeynaysaa GDP ga  Somalia inuu yahay 5.896 billion (2010est) GDP PPP oo laga soo gaabiyey Purchasing Power Parity asagana uu yahay 5.79 billion (2009 est) wuxuu u kala baxaa GDP mid magac ahaan iska ah iyo mid run ah midka runta ah waxaa laga saaraa sicir barrakii dhacay wadanka gudahiisa kaas oo keeni kara tirada in uu ka badiyo waxa dhabta ah korarka sicirka awgeed  laakiin marka laga saaro sicir bararka ay soo baxayso waxa dhabta ah ee uu kordhay  wax soo saarka gudaha  (GDP)  waxa lagu soo bandhigay webkaas  in ay tilmaamayso in uu yahay is bedelka mid taagan oo ah  (constatnt ) wax is bedel ahna ka muuqanin 2.6 yahay ilaa 2012 GDP - real growth rate 2.6% (2010 est.) 2.6% (2012 est.) 2.6% (2008 est.). 
  15. DrMahad added a post in a topic: Leadership versus management - Hogaaminta iyo Maamulka   

    Leadership vs. Management
     
    What is the difference between management and leadership? It is a question that has been asked more than once and also answered in different ways. The biggest difference between managers and leaders is the way they motivate the people who work or follow them, and this sets the tone for most other aspects of what they do.
    Many people, by the way, are both. They have management jobs, but they realize that you cannot buy hearts, especially to follow them down a difficult path, and so act as leaders too.
    Managers have subordinates
    By definition, managers have subordinates - unless their title is honorary and given as a mark of seniority, in which case the title is a misnomer and their http://changingminds.org/explanations/power/power.htmoverothersisotherthanformal authority.
    Authoritarian, transactional style
    Managers have a position of authority vested in them by the company, and their subordinates work for them and largely do as they are told. Management style is http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/styles/transactional_leadership.htm, in that the manager tells the subordinate what to do, and the subordinate does this not because they are a blind robot, but because they have been promised a reward (at minimum their salary) for doing so.
    Work focus
    Managers are paid to get things done (they are subordinates too), often within tight constraints of time and money. They thus naturally pass on this work focus to their subordinates.
    Seek comfort
    An interesting research finding about managers is that they tend to come from stable home backgrounds and led relatively normal and comfortable lives. This leads them to be relatively risk-averse and they will seek to avoid conflict where possible. In terms of people, they generally like to run a 'happy ship'.
    Leaders have followers
    Leaders do not have subordinates - at least not when they are leading. Many organizational leaders do have subordinates, but only because they are also managers. But when they want to lead, they have to give up formal authoritarian control, because to lead is to have followers, and following is always a voluntary activity.
    Charismatic, transformational style
    Telling people what to do does not inspire them to follow you. You have to appeal to them, showing how following them will lead to their hearts' desire. They must want to follow you enough to stop what they are doing and perhaps walk into danger and situations that they would not normally consider risking.
    Leaders with a stronger http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/styles/charismatic_leadership.htmfinditeasiertoattractpeople to their cause. As a part of their persuasion they typically promise http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/styles/transformational_leadership.htm benefits, such that their followers will not just receive extrinsic rewards but will somehow become better people.
    People focus
    Although many leaders have a charismatic style to some extent, this does not require a loud personality. They are always good with people, and http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/styles/quiet_leader.htmstylesthatgivecredittoothers (and takes blame on themselves) are very effective at creating the loyalty that great leaders engender.
    Although leaders are good with people, this does not mean they are friendly with them. In order to keep the mystique of leadership, they often retain a degree of separation and aloofness.
    This does not mean that leaders do not pay attention to tasks - in fact they are often very achievement-focused. What they do realize, however, is the importance of enthusing others to work towards their vision.
    Seek risk
    In the same study that showed managers as risk-averse, leaders appeared as http://changingminds.org/explanations/preferences/risk_bias.htm, although they are not blind thrill-seekers. When pursuing their vision, they consider it natural to encounter problems and hurdles that must be overcome along the way. They are thus comfortable with risk and will see routes that others avoid as potential opportunities for advantage and will happily break rules in order to get things done.
    A surprising number of these leaders had some form of handicap in their lives which they had to overcome. Some had traumatic childhoods, some had problems such as dyslexia, others were shorter than average. This perhaps taught them the independence of mind that is needed to go out on a limb and not worry about what others are thinking about you.
    In summary
    This table summarizes the above (and more) and gives a sense of the differences between being a leader and being a manager. This is, of course, an illustrative characterization, and there is a whole spectrum between either ends of these scales along which each role can range. And many people lead and manage at the same time, and so may display a combination of behaviors.